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The Department of Teaching, Learning, and Professional Development offers courses in early childhood education, education, elementary education, secondary education, and special education.

ECED: EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION COURSE DESCRIPTIONS

ECED 301 THEORY AND PRACTICES IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION 3 Credits
Prerequisites: EDUC 101, EDUC 201, English Proficiency Examination, NTE(CS, GK), and admission to Teacher Education. Study of the history and theory of early childhood education. Emphasis on the skills and processes needed for the design and implementation of optimal learning environments. Exploration of issues related to societal and cultural influences on young children's education, as well as significant learning theories. NTE: PK should be taken with this course.

ECED 303 METHODS OF TEACHING LANGUAGE ARTS IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION 3 Credits
Prerequisites: ECED 301, and NTE (CS and GK). Emphasis on the interrelatedness of reading, writing, listening, and speaking and developing appropriate strategies for teaching students in the early grades. Exploration and evaluation of the content and materials for teaching the mechanics of writing and speech, oral and written expression, reading for pleasure and information and language enrichment. Practicum III is taken concurrently. NTE: ECED should be taken with this course.

ECED 305 METHODS OF TEACHING READING IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION 3 Credits
Prerequisites: ECED 301 and NTE (CS and GK). Emphasis on the development of competencies essential for providing effective reading instruction for children. Students broaden their knowledge and understanding of the reading process, of children and their development and learning, and of the importance of literacy in a modern, technologically oriented society. Students integrate their professional knowledge and understandings with insights gained through actual experiences in schools. Required practicum will be school-based. Practicum III is taken concurrently. NTE: ECED should be taken with this course.

ECED 306 METHODS OF TEACHING SCIENCE IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION 3 Credits
Prerequisites: ECED 301 and NTE (CS and GK). A study of the curriculum methods, concepts, techniques, and materials in the teaching of general science to children in the early grades. Required practicum will be school-based. Practicum III is taken concurrently. NTE: ECED should be taken with this course.

ECED 310 METHODS OF TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION 3 Credits
Prerequisites: EDUC 201, ECED 201, and NTE (CS and GK). Study of curriculum methods, materials, content, and organization of social studies programs. Practicum III is taken concurrently. NTE: ECED should be taken with this course.

ECED 314 METHODS OF TEACHING MATHEMATICS IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION 3 Credits
Prerequisites: EDUC 201, ECED 201, and NTE (CS and GK). A course designed to provide students with an understanding of the concepts, techniques, and materials in the teaching of mathematics to children in the early grades. Practicum III is taken concurrently. NTE: ECED should be taken with this course.

ECED 316 PRACTICUM III 1 Credit
Observation of instruction and the learning process in the early grades. Students have an opportunity to develop lesson plans, implement instruction, assess learning, and examine curriculum materials under the supervision of a master teacher. This practicum must be taken with methods courses. Practicum is completed on a Tuesday or Thursday for the full day. NTE: CS, GK, and PK are required to apply for Student Teaching. Application is made for student teaching during this course.

ECED 320 CREATIVE LEARNING EXPERIENCES (Spring) 3 Credits
Prerequisites: ECED 301 and EDUC 101. Content and techniques that teach students how to promote creativity in young children. Emphasis is placed on curriculum integration and teaching strategies for encouraging and guiding creative expression in art, music, dramatics, physical activities, and play. Methods of integrating creative approaches into the curriculum are examined.

ECED 322 INFANTS: BIRTH–FOUR YEARS OLD (Periodically) 3 Credits
A course designed to provide students with a constructive understanding of the physical, mental, social, and emotional factors inherent in the growth and development of very young children and the practical insights of the various forces affecting their learning behavior and personality.

ECED 327 PARENT, FAMILY, AND COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOOD AND SPECIAL EDUCATION (Spring) 3 Credits
An extensive examination of the rationale, goals, and techniques for developing a positive and supportive relationship with parents, family, and the community. Exploration and evaluation of programs, methods, and materials for working with parents, auxiliary programs, services, and staff members.

ECED 401 DIRECTED TEACHING AND SEMINAR IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION 6 Credits
Prerequisites: ECED 301, all methods courses and NTE (CS, GK, PK) are required to apply. The student participates in all of the activities of the teacher in the classroom, in the school, and in the community. Beginning with a period of observation and orientation, the students receive assignments of increasing difficulty from the master critic teacher until they are capable of assuming full responsibility for teaching. The placement for this course will be in Grades K–3. The practical experience is accompanied by a regularly scheduled seminar. The student teacher follows the entire schedule of the school at which the student is placed.

ECED 501 ISSUES IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION 3 Credits
Students will intensively examine the following topics: need for early childhood education; goals and assumptions in early childhood education; program assessment problems; differences and likenesses in alternative early childhood programs; parent and community involvement; issues in methods and teaching techniques of classroom management and organization, including cognitive, psychoanalytic, and behavioral approaches.

ECED 503 EARLY CHILDHOOD PSYCHOLOGY CURRICULUM I SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT 3 Credits
Students will review relevant theory and research and development competencies in the area of social and emotional development. Competencies to be developed will include techniques for (a) development of self-concept, (b) enhancing play and selecting appropriate play material, (c) assessing children's social and emotional development, (d) developing appropriate classroom and interpersonal behaviors, (e) achieving maximum home-school cooperation toward social-emotional goals, (f) accommodating to personality and lifestyle differences, and (g) enhancing children's abilities to cope with uncertainty and frustration.

ECED 505 EARLY CHILDHOOD PSYCHOLOGY AND CURRICULUM II PERCEPTUAL AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT 3 Credits
Students will review relevant theory and research and develop competencies in the areas of perceptual development; motor development; health and nutritional needs; and visual and aesthetic development. Competencies will further include assessment of children as well as materials and programs; task sequencing and simplification; developing visual, auditory and tactual discrimination; and devising a movement exploration curriculum. Parent involvement in curriculum planning and decisions will be explored.

ECED 507 EARLY CHILDHOOD PSYCHOLOGY AND CURRICULUM III COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT 3 Credits
Students will develop knowledge and techniques of assessment, evaluation of materials and programs, and task sequencing and simplification in the area of cognitive development. Competencies include skills in developing the child's ability to understand and succeed in tasks involving reasoning, problem-solving, synthesizing and analyzing materials in mathematics, social studies, and science. Parent involvement in curriculum planning and decisions will be explored.

ECED 509 EARLY CHILDHOOD PSYCHOLOGY AND CURRICULUM IV LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 3 Credits
Students will review relevant theory and research and develop competencies in assessment of children and materials in the area of language development. Normal, delayed, and deviant language development will be studied as well as the development of an appreciation for poetry and literature. Methods and competencies in programming for a variety of language development objectives (e.g., articulation, clarity of ideas, elaborative expression, relevancy and logic of expression, and communication of needs and feelings) will be emphasized, and parent involvement will be explored.

ECED 511 SEMINAR IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION 3 Credits
The seminar has two main purposes: 1) to review major topics in the field; and, 2) to achieve an in-depth exploration of a major issue or trend in early childhood education through a written report.

ECED 513 PRACTICUM IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION 3 Credits
Students will demonstrate a specified number of on-the-job competencies, specified in conference with the instructor, as discussed and developed in previous courses. Students will be visited on-site in field experiences and practicum situations.

ECED 515 THE ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF PRESCHOOLS 3 Credits
Students examine the following components of preschool organization and management: staff selection and evaluation, staffing and training of paraprofessionals, fiscal problems, compliance with regulatory agencies, space deployment, equipment selection, nutrition and health standards, and parent involvement.

ECED 517 AUXILIARY PROGRAMS AND SERVICES IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION 3 Credits
Students examine the following early childhood auxiliary programs and services: family day care, bilingual programs, volunteer programs, parent involvement and education, community needs and expectations, professional organizations and government agencies, and health, medical, and psychological services.

ECED 519 INTERVENTIONS WITH PRESCHOOL HANDICAPPED 3 Credits
Students will explore sources of identification and referral of preschool handicapped children, methods of initial and continuing parent education and involvement, methods of working with parents in the home as well as school settings, modifications needed in classroom facilities, curriculum and management modifications needed in working with all categories of mildly to moderately handicapped preschool children and sensory handicapped children, preparation of individualized programs, and techniques for assessing program effectiveness.

EDUC: EDUCATION COURSE DESCRIPTIONS

EDUC 101 INTRODUCTION TO EDUCATION 3 Credits
Prerequisites: ENGL 101, MATH 112, and PSYC 101. An overview of American public education, the teaching profession, and contemporary issues that impact on public education. The Preprofessional Skills Test (PPST) must be taken with this course. Students must also enroll concurrently in EDUC 102 Practicum I.

EDUC 102 PRACTICUM I 1 Credit
An opportunity for the student to assist with classroom activities in an early childhood, elementary or secondary setting. The practicum is completed on Tuesdays or Thursdays each week and extends for a full day. The practicum must be taken concurrently with EDUC 101.

EDUC 103 MICROCOMPUTERS IN AN EDUCATIONAL SETTING 3 Credits
An introduction to the use of microcomputers in the classroom. Topics will include how a computer operates, a short history of the development of the computer, the use of prepared software, an examination of existing software, and criteria for assessment of programs.

EDUC 201 HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 3 Credits
Prerequisites: EDUC 101 and PPST. A study of the biological, psychological, and social factors that influence the growth and development of the individual from conception to adulthood. Students enrolled in EDUC201 are required to take Practicum II concurrently.

EDUC 202 PRACTICUM II 1 Credit
An opportunity for the student to complete a case study on an individual pupil in a public school setting. The practicum is completed on Tuesdays or Thursdays of each week and extends for a full day. The practicum must be taken concurrently with EDUC 201.

EDUC 210 EDUCATION OF CHILDREN IN CONTEMPORARY UNITED STATES (Periodically) 3 Credits
A study of current educational issues and practices from a political, social, and urban view. Exploration of contemporary problems in American education.

EDUC 218 SOCIAL AND POLITICAL ISSUES OF URBAN EDUCATION (Periodically) 3 Credits
Prerequisite: A course in sociology or government. A study of social and political problems in urban education, particularly the relationship of education to social mobility and residential patterns; problems of desegregation; school decentralization and other forms of school governance; trends in teacher education.

EDUC 220 TEST CRITERION FOR CERTIFICATION 3 Credits
Emphasis on enhancing the student's familiarity and contact with various standardized test formats and their specifications, objectives, instructions, item designs, and scoring formulas, with particular reference to the National Teachers Examination. A testing fee will be assessed each student upon registration for the course. This course is a prerequisite for all other professional sequence courses. The STEPP Lab is a requirement with this course. The NTE Core Battery (CS and GK) is a course requirement.

EDUC 242 LITERATURE FOR CHILDREN 3 Credits
Prerequisites: English Proficiency Examination, EDUC 101, EDUC 201, and PPST. An orientation to the history, trends, values, and content of children's literature and its importance in the education of young children. Emphasis on acquiring knowledge of a wide variety of contemporary children's books and strategies for appreciating teaching and evaluating literature.

EDUC 311 MANAGING THE DIVERSE CLASSROOM 3 Credits
Prerequisites: English Proficiency Examination, EDUC 101, EDUC 102, and PPST. An exploration of the characteristics and patterns of behavior of students within a diverse classroom. Students will develop strategies for managing an orderly and effective learning environment for students.

EDUC 312 THE MIDDLE SCHOOL (Periodically) 3 Credits
The pre-adolescent and early adolescent and the endeavors of educational systems to meet his/her needs through the middle school. The unique nature of the 11-14 age group emerging from a variety of psychological and social factors is addressed.

EDUC 313 DIAGNOSTIC AND PRESCRIPTIVE TEACHING TECHNIQUES (Periodically) 3 Credits
Prerequisites: English Proficiency Examination, EDUC 101, EDUC 102, and PPST. Exploration of several assessment tools and evaluation strategies (formal and informal) and their appropriateness for variable learning environments. Students analyze results of standardized and teacher-made tests and prepare prescriptive lessons.

EDUC 316 FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION 3 Credits
Prerequisites: English Proficiency Examination, EDUC 101, and PPST. The major historical, social, and philosophical concepts that undergird present educational philosophy, objectives, forms, and practices. Discussion of the administration of the organization and the financing of public education laws dealing with American education. Emphasis is also placed on values and the teaching of values in a school setting. Admission to Teacher Education is a course requirement.

EDUC 402 ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION 3 Credits
Prerequisites: English Proficiency Examination, EDUC 101, EDUC 102, and NTE (CS, GK). A study of the construction, validation, and use of tests for diagnosing levels of achievement and measuring educational outcomes. Introduction to the use, administration, and interpretation of standardized tests and performance-based assessments.

EDUC 403 FUNDAMENTALS OF SIGN LANGUAGE COMMUNICATION (Periodically) 3 Credits
A course designed to facilitate communication between hearing and deaf persons in the workplace, community settings, and other everyday situations. An overview of deafness and the deaf community and the use of sign language as a formidable tool of communication. Special attention is given to the use of a combination of traditional American signs, finger spelling, and other body dynamics that play an important role in conveying meaning. This course will not satisfy state certification special education requirements.

EDUC 404 ADVANCED FUNDAMENTALS OF SIGN LANGUAGE COMMUNICATION 3 Credits
A continuation of the basic course, Fundamentals of Sign Language Communication. Primary focus on increasing facility in finger spelling, receiving and sending signs. Special emphasis on developing basic skills in learning the pattern of grammatical structure in the idiomatic language of signs in order to help students progress from formal sign language and finger spelling to manual communication as it is used in the deaf community. This course will not satisfy state certification special education requirements.

EDUC 449 INDEPENDENT STUDY IN EDUCATION 3 Credits
Prerequisites: Permission of Department Chair. Individualized reading or research program under the direct guidance of an instructor. A description of the program will be developed jointly by the instructor and the student and approved by the chair of the Department. Independent Study may not be used as a substitute for the general education requirements. The Department requires a cumulative average of 3.5 to admit a student for Independent Study.

EDUC 501 LEARNING AND TEACHING 3 Credits
This course is designed to: (1) provide a review of effective teaching based on an understanding of human development and the nature of learning; (2) explore the topics of learned behavior, reinforcement, motivation, interest, retention and concept formation; (3) consider the analysis and interpretation of significant research in the various disciplines which have contributed to the knowledge of learning and teaching; (4) emphasize the factors which facilitate learning; and (5) identify the role of the teacher in the learning environment.

EDUC 503 STATISTICAL METHODS IN EDUCATION 3 Credits
Problems in statistical analysis taken from education and psychology, including computation and interpretation of averages, introduction to hypothesis testing, and coefficients of correlation, are emphasized. Some attention is given to an understanding of partial and multiple correlations as these relate to various complexities dealing with problems commonly faced in research in education.

EDUC 504 SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY RELATIONS 3 Credits
This course is designed to consider how issues and confrontations, such as school personnel, pupils, parents, and representatives of social institutions and agencies, interact. The question to resolve is how the school may best use the human resources surrounding it to the enhancement of its goals and its programs.

EDUC 505 RECENT ISSUES IN EDUCATION 3 Credits
Emphasis in this course is upon the analysis of selected recent issues in education for critical study. It further includes emphasis upon broad reading of the research and literature in order to appraise current issues in terms of needs of children and society.

EDUC 706 INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH 3 Credits
This course is designed to provide the graduate student with an understanding of the various kinds of behavioral research and to develop an understanding of various research designs appropriate to behavioral sciences. Use of basic statistical techniques appropriate to these designs is included.

EDUC 507 HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT (ADVANCED) 3 Credits
The course is planned to place emphasis on the study of the characteristics of human growth at each stage of development. Special emphasis will be placed on the implications for education. Practical work in the study of children, adolescents, and/or youth is required. Instruction and practice in the writing of a child-study report is also given.

EDUC 508 PRINCIPLES AND PHILOSOPHY OF PUPIL SERVICES 3 Credits
A study of the principles and philosophy of the total program of pupil services is emphasized. Specific attention is given to the basic organization, planning, and operation of a pupil service program designed to serve specific needs of children.

EDUC 509 ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF PUPIL SERVICES PROGRAMS 3 Credits
A study of the organization and administration of Pupil Service Programs is undertaken. Emphasis is placed on the total program of pupil services as designed to serve the student, with attention paid to the interlocking aspects of the total program of pupil services.

EDUC 510 TESTS AND MEASUREMENTS 3 Credits
The basic concepts of quantifying behavior: validity, reliability, norms, and methods of expressing test scores statistically. Course emphasizes standardized and non-standardized instruments, methods of communicating test results, and planning the school and non-school testing program. Practice in test interpretation provided.

EDUC 511 CULTURAL DEPRIVATION AND EDUCATION 3 Credits
The course consists of current studies relating to the effects of cultural deficiencies on learning and alleviation techniques as they relate to school and community resources, social agencies, and institutions. Effort is made to propose action programs of a developmental nature.

EDUC 526 COMPUTERS AND TECHNOLOGY FOR EDUCATION AND PROFESSIONAL STUDIES 3 Credits
This course introduces computer technology to the educator. It consists of two main components: basic computer skills and the methods of integrating computer technology into K-8 curricula. Appreciation for the use of Microsoft Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Netscape, and Home Page will be developed. Methods for using computers to enhance and manage instruction will be introduced.

EDUC 512 PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATION AND THE DISADVANTAGED 3 Credits
This course explores various intervention approaches involving school, home, and community designed to help disadvantaged children overcome educational deficiencies. Curriculum reform, institutional innovation, materials, and parental involvement are also stressed.

EDUC 513 CURRICULUM CHANGE AND INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS 3 Credits
This course emphasizes strategies for change in the school curriculum with respect to (1) methodologies of teaching, (2) personalized instructions, (3) curriculum design, and (4) teacher roles.

EDUC 514 LEARNING PROBLEMS OF THE ACADEMICALLY DISADVANTAGED 3 Credits
Environmental influences which have negative effects on educational performance and on other factors as perception and intelligence are considered. School intervention strategies appropriate to the task of overcoming the academic deficiencies in such learners are explored.

EDUC 515 SEX EDUCATION AND HUMAN RELATIONS 3 Credits
The purpose of this course is to help teachers at both elementary and secondary levels to organize and conduct meaningful learning experiences in human sexuality and sex education. The first part of the course presents a factual basis for understanding the physical, emotional, and behavioral aspects of sexuality in human relations. The other part of the course is about the teaching of sex and sexuality in schools. Included are the broad goals of sex education, objectives, curriculum planning, content, methods, and unit lesson planning.

EDUC 516 OPEN EDUCATION 3 Credits
A practical presentation of the concepts of the open classroom as an alternative to the traditional classroom procedures; an examination of the theory and philosophy behind open education and open space schools. Includes important guidelines for making decisions regarding organization, learning, and curriculum, along with practical approaches to areas such as learning styles, role definitions, planning, and management.

EDUC 517 CREATIVE ART IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 3 Credits
This course provides an overview of the developmental process of children's art and its relationship to mental and emotional growth. There will be student participation in creative art experiences which are applicable to classroom use.

EDUC 518 CAREER EDUCATION 3 Credits
The development of comprehensive integrated career educational program for grades K through post-secondary in concert with the school, home, and community. This program will stress classroom organizational procedures, utilization of teacher-practitioner teams, development of decision-making skills, communications skills, and emphasis on new strategies in developing the whole person. Survey of various career development programs, with emphasis on description and applicability.

EDUC 519 THE FINE ARTS IN THE CURRICULUM: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH 3 Credits
This course is interdisciplinary, drawing upon the nature of the fine arts and their implications for curriculum development. The course will introduce the classroom teacher to the nature of aesthetics and the techniques for incorporating aesthetic experiences into curriculum through poetry and the visual (painting, collage, sculpture) and performing (music, dance, drama) arts. Emphasis will be placed on the classroom teacher's role and practical application of understandings which can be used with children and youth.

EDUC 520 PROBLEMS AND TECHNIQUES IN CONTEMPORARY EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT 3 Credits
This course is designed to assist the student to prepare for management of educational organizations and programs. Emphasis will be placed upon identifying specific problems and developing specific techniques by which to solve them. The student will gain an understanding and application of system analysis as it applies to leadership, organizational systems, communications, and change and sustenance of existing systems; human management and technical skills will be emphasized. Major topics to be explored will be accountability, mainstreaming, teacher stress and burn out, alternative approaches to discipline, drugs and alcohol, declining enrollment, and alternative methods for evaluating teachers and students. The student will be afforded the opportunity for input and to suggest other specific topics of interest.

EDUC 521 ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS (Formerly EDUC 512) 3 Credits
This is a survey course of the organization and administration of modern American public education, including local, state, and federal levels with their differing roles and responsibilities. The historical development of local school district organization and various types of local school districts, such as township, city, county unit, union high school, and independent elementary school districts are included. The phenomena of public insistence on local control, school district consolidation, and the current decentralization movement in administration are studied, as well as the development of the professional of school administration, from the "headmaster" and "inspector" beginnings to the modern urban superintendency.

EDUC 572 SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION 3 Credits
This is a core course and must be taken prior to taking the preliminary examination and being advanced to candidacy. This course emphasizes the organization and administrative practices involved in operating a modern school. The course introduces theories pertaining to leadership, organization, communications, change and sustenance of existing systems as they pertain to managerial, human, and technical skills and how they are applied to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of existing systems.

EDUC 524 PUBLIC SCHOOL FINANCE 3 Credits
This course includes analysis and discussion of current local, state, and national sources of revenue for the support of public education and a study of school financial practices, including budgetary processes in detail and some principles of sound management of income and expenditures, bonding procedures, accounting, and auditing.

EDUC 525 SEMINAR IN SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION 3 Credits
This seminar has three main purposes: (1) to assist the student in completing the research paper requirement; (2) to review major topics in the area of concentration; and, (3) to achieve an in-depth exploration of major issues and trends in the area of school supervision. A previous course in administration or supervision is a prerequisite for this seminar. The seminar must be taken during the last six hours of the degree program. The student must have been advanced to candidacy and have passed the Graduate Comprehensive Examination. 

EDUC 527 SCHOOL LAW 3 Credits This is a core course and must be taken prior to taking the preliminary examination and being advanced to candidacy. This course is designed to make legal matters understandable to non-lawyers by appraising the laws under which teachers and administrators are employed; to delve into legal principles underlying statutes and court decisions; to provide answers to questions which involve individuals and institutions, and to make clear the process of negotiating. The course is intended to give prospective teachers a better understanding of an area that affects their professional environment.

EDUC 528 TEACHER -SCHOOL BOARD RELATIONSHIPS 3 Credits
This course is designed to cover the relationships between the teacher and the local board of education, with a primary focus on professional negotiations. Emphasis will include the historical perspective, roles of professional associations, legal ramifications, and the process of negotiating. The course is intended to give teachers a better understanding of an area that affects their professional environment.

EDUC 529 HEALTH INSTRUCTION IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 3 Credits
This course includes materials and methodology for teaching elementary school curricula. Areas of curriculum include personal, mental, and community health. Family life, health consumer information, nutrition, and an introduction to drug uses and abuses are also included.

EDUC 531 SCHOOL CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT 3 Credits
This course is a survey of the structure of the school curriculum, with emphasis on the (1) historical aspects, (2) current philosophical, psychological, and social bases, (3) processes, and (4) current research in curriculum development. Individual projects may be selected for early childhood, elementary or secondary education levels of interest.

EDUC 532 SCHOOL CLASSROOM PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES 3 Credits
This course is designed as a rigorous experience in observation, understanding, and evaluation of teaching strategies. There is discussion and analysis of contemporary literature to improve the understanding of teacher roles, methodologies, and program characteristics. Individual projects may be selected to match the student's level of interest.

EDUC 633 LITERATURE FOR CHILDREN 3 Credits
Study will focus upon the development and use of criteria in selecting and analyzing the pictorial and verbal statements of children's books. Both in-class and out-of-class opportunities will provide in-depth exposure to fanciful and factual literary content. In addition, study will focus on teaching strategies and alternative materials and media of the field. Individual projects will relate to the student's level of interest.

EDUC 534 ADVANCED STUDY IN TEACHING THE LANGUAGE ARTS 3 Credits
Study will focus upon the modes of communication, listening, speaking, and writing. Analysis of skill development, methods, and materials will be emphasized, as well as the relationship of the language arts to creativity and other curriculum areas. Individual and group problems will be addressed. Individual projects will relate to the student's level and areas of interest.

EDUC 535 ADVANCED STUDY IN TEACHING THE SOCIAL STUDIES 3 Credits
For experienced teachers; identification, definition, and analysis of some of the most important problems facing teachers of the social studies. Consideration is given to trends and issues which are concerned with the content, materials, activities, and classroom practices. Individual projects will relate to the student's level and area of interest.

EDUC 536 ADVANCED STUDY IN TEACHING ARITHMETIC IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 3 Credits
A critical review of research and development in arithmetic teaching in the elementary school, with emphasis on practices, trends, content reorganization, modern mathematics materials, current curriculum projects, and published materials. The course would be appropriate for all educators.

EDUC 537 FOUNDATIONS OF SCIENCE EDUCATION 3 Credits
This is a basic course that includes the history and philosophy of science, influences on modern inquiry, and the scientific method as bases today's industrialized and technological civilization.

EDUC 538 ELEMENTARY SCHOOL SCIENCE 3 Credits
This course is designed to have students sense science from a developmental point of view. Attention is given to a study of science programs as these relate to and satisfy curriculum expectations in today's world.

EDUC 539 CURRICULUM MATERIALS AND APPRAISAL 3 Credits
This course emphasizes appraisal of the concepts and principles of new curricula, kindergarten through grade 12, with consideration given to content, teaching methods, and materials of current curriculum projects and published materials.

EDUC 540 SEMINAR: SECONDARY EDUCATION 3 Credits
This course is designed to review major topics in the area of concentration and to achieve an in-depth exploration of major issues and trends in secondary education. The seminar must be taken during the last six hours of the degree program.

EDUC 554 SEMINAR IN CURRICULUM 3 Credits
This seminar has three main purposes: (1) to assist the student in completing the research paper requirement; (2) to review major topics in the area of concentration; and (3) to achieve an in-depth exploration of major issues and trends in the field of curriculum. The seminar must be taken during the last six hours of the degree program.

EDUC 555 PRACTICUM FOR SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION 3 Credits
This course provides supervised practice and simulated learning experiences that enable the aspiring administrator or supervisor to consolidate his/her knowledge, observe others at work, apply skills and techniques, and organize a philosophy. This course must be taken during the last six hours of the degree program. The student must have been advanced to candidacy and have passed the Graduate Comprehensive Examination.

EDUC 556 CURRICULUM PLANNING FOR PEOPLES AND CULTURES OF WEST AFRICA 3 Credits
The course will provide training in the development, creation, dissemination and use of curricular materials on peoples and cultures of West Africa. Appropriate materials and techniques for both elementary and secondary levels are included.

EDUC 557 SCHOOL SUPERVISION 3 Credits
This is a core course and must be taken prior to taking the preliminary examination and being advanced to candidacy. This course emphasizes the nature of organization, human relationships, and techniques involved in supervision. Particular emphasis is placed on the application of the skill, mix, recent research, and dynamics of group behavior in accomplishing the goals and objectives of the organization, individual schools, and specific departments and grade levels.

EDUC 562 DRUG ABUSE EDUCATION 3 Credits
This course is designed for the professional educator—teacher, counselor, and administrator—and other professionals working with school-age youth. The extent and recognition of the drug abuse problem and recognition of the symptoms in an individual under the influence of narcotics and drugs, with a view to involving the professional on both a specific and a general action-oriented level, are stressed. The professional completing this course will have had the opportunity to accumulate the knowledge and skills necessary to take some reasonable action when confronted with the drug abuse problem at various school age levels.

EDUC 563 SEMINAR IN ELEMENTARY EDUCATION 3 Credits
This seminar has three main purposes: (1) to assist the student in completing the research paper requirement; (2) to review major topics in the area of concentration; and (3) to achieve an in-depth exploration of major issues and trends in the area of elementary education. The seminar must be taken during the last six hours of the degree program.

EDUC 564 FIELD TRIPS IN AESTHETIC EDUCATION 3 Credits
Students explore aesthetic resources in and around the Washington, DC, area. Students become familiar with resources related to the fine and performing arts and develop educational plans for incorporating these resources into their aesthetic education curriculum. Students apply their experiences to the age/grade level with which they are most concerned.

EDUC 567 THE MIDDLE SCHOOL 3 Credits
This course includes the philosophy and purposes of the middle school and its organization and administration, the curriculum, and appropriate methodologies. Similarities and contrasts to the junior high school and other types of organization will be covered.

EDUC 568 INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION 3 Credits
This course is designed to acquaint teachers with methods of individualizing instruction at the elementary, junior high, and high school levels. Primary emphasis will be on learning activity programs and other methods. Students can expect to learn how to prepare, implement, and evaluate individualized programs.

EDUC 569 PRACTICUM IN SECONDARY EDUCATION 3 Credits
To provide an opportunity for students to place the theory of secondary education into practice in a supervised atmosphere, students will be placed in settings that differ from their previous experiences. This course must be taken during the last six hours of the degree program.

EDUC 570 GENERAL SAFETY EDUCATION 3 Credits
Contemporary and anticipated accidents in the urban home, on the farm, in industry, recreation and transportation, and at school are explored. Theories of accident causation are examined. Principles and practices for reducing the frequency and severity of accidents are developed, with special emphasis on the role of education in eliminating environmental hazards and reducing avoidable human error.

EDUC 571 PUPIL TRANSPORTATION 3 Credits
This course includes consideration of the organization and the administration of state, county, and district pupil transportation service, with emphasis on safety and economy. The planning of bus routes, the selection and training of bus drivers and maintenance mechanics, specifications of school buses, and procurement procedures are included.

EDUC 572 PUBLIC SCHOOL TRANSPORTATION OF SCHOOL CHILDREN 3 Credits
This course is designed to serve as the means for considering the problems of school bus transportation, solutions employed, and a review of research in the field.

EDUC 574 ORGANIZATION, ADMINISTRATION, AND SUPERVISION OF SCHOOL SAFETY EDUCATION 3 Credits
This course is designed for teachers, school administrators, college instructors, and others responsible for directing or supervising safety programs in the schools. It deals with the problems, policies, practices, and procedures involved in the organization, administration, and supervision of a comprehensive accident prevention and safety education program for the schools. It considers integration factors of the school safety programs, with special emphasis on traffic programs.

EDUC 575 ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION OF DRIVER EDUCATION 3 Credits
This course offers background and experience in administration and supervision of driver education programs. Methods of organization, techniques, materials, program planning, records, and reports, financing and insurance, procurement, personnel selection, and planning classroom and in-car laboratory experiences are studied.

EDUC 576 THE TALENTED AND GIFTED 3 Credits
The nature and needs of the talented and gifted in all areas of development are explored. Special curriculum and management plans for the gifted and talented are developed by students at the primary, elementary, or secondary level as suited to the needs of those enrolled.

EDUC 596 TEACHING CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS 3 Credits
Teaching Children with Special Needs is a telecourse of 16 half-hour tele-lessons designed for regular and special educators. It offers introductory instruction in the observation, identification, and management of children, K-3, who demonstrate mild to moderate learning problems.

EDUC 597 INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION UTILIZATION 3 Credits
This is a college credit course combining televised lessons, on-campus seminars, and related workbook assignments. This 3-credit, upper-division undergraduate and graduate level course focuses on planning for the various uses of instructional television with students. State, local school unit, school, and classroom uses will be illustrated through film and studio production. In addition, the aspects of producing the ITV program are developed through the television lessons and "hands-on" assignments in the seminars.

EDUC 599 IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MIDDLE SCHOOL 3 Credits
This course concentrates on the implementation of the philosophy and purposes of the middle school as set forth in EDUC 0810.567.

EDUC 600 THESIS 3-6 Credits
Thesis for Plan II degree candidates only.

EDUC 601 RESEARCH METHODS AND SKILLS 3 Credit
Prerequisites:  500 Level Core Course
Research Methods and Skills is a course designed to provide the Graduate student with a knowledge of various kinds of behavioral research and data analysis via various statistical packages.  This is a Web-enhanced course.  The course will focus on various research design methods and hypotheses testing relavant to educational action research appropriate to behavioral sciences.

EDUC 602 RESEARCH, ASSESSMENT, AND TECHNOLOGY 3 Credits
Research, Assessment, and Technology is a course designed to provide the graduate student with (a) an understanding of the various kinds of behavioral research, (b) an understanding of various research designs appropriate to behavioral sciences, (c) use of basic statistical techniques appropriate to designs, (d) a practical understanding and application of various assessments used within each major's discipline or specific area and level, as well as skills by which to construct tests necessary for evaluating and assessing students, and (e) an introduction to and application of modern technology in order to enhance learning and enable the student to teach within a global society. The nature of the computer, relative and contemporary software, the Internet, and applications of telecommunications are presented. Specific experiences within a school-based setting are also provided for enrollees to observe, work with students, and apply concepts and skills emphasized within the course.

EDUC 604 PERSPECTIVES AND METHODS IN TEACHING 6 Credits
This course is an integrated methods course concentrating on the practices and procedures specific to teaching in elementary, middle, and secondary schools. This course has two eight-week segments. The first eight-week segment includes a survey of the methods and competencies necessary for teaching elementary, middle, and secondary students. During the second eight-week segment, the students will concentrate on specific elementary and secondary teaching methods and competencies in their content area. The student must have been advanced to candidacy and have completed the appropriate components of the National Teacher's Examination (NTE). This course is a prerequisite for registration in EDUC 605 Supervised Internship I, or the student may take EDUC 604 and EDUC 605 concurrently.

EDUC 605 SUPERVISED INTERNSHIP I (Practicum Field Experience, Part I) 3 Credits
Supervised Internship I provides on-site, supervised instructional experience within a public school setting under the leadership of an appropriate, competent professional. Supervised practice and simulated learning experiences are included to enable the aspiring teacher to consolidate knowledge, observe others at work, apply skills and techniques, and construct a philosophy of teaching. This course makes provisions for practicum experiences for students in K-6 and 7-12 settings according to the students' needs. The student in SI I will be expected to complete a minimum of 60 hours of supervised activities. The student must have been advanced to candidacy and have completed the appropriate components of the National Teacher's Examination (NTE). Students registering for this course must have completed EDUC 604 Perspectives and Methods for Teaching, or be registered concurrently for EDUC 604.

EDUC 606 SUPERVISED INTERNSHIP II (Practicum Field Experience, Part II) 6 Credits
Supervised Internship II provides an on-site, supervised instructional experience within the public school setting under the leadership of an appropriate, competent professional. Supervised practice and learning experiences are included to enable the aspiring teacher to teach, consolidate knowledge, observe others at work, apply skills and techniques, and construct a philosophy of teaching. This course makes provisions for practicum experiences for students in K-6 and 7-12 settings according to the students' needs. The student in Supervised Internship II will be expected to complete a full semester of supervised teaching. The student will be placed in a classroom with a qualified teacher for direct supervision. This course must be taken after Supervised Internship I (EDUC 605) and Perspectives and Methods in Teaching (EDUC 604). The student must have been advanced to candidacy and have completed the appropriate components of the National Teacher's Examination (NTE).

ELED: ELEMENTARY EDUCATION COURSE DESCRIPTIONS

ELED 301 THEORY AND PRACTICE/ELEMENTARY 3 Credits
Prerequisites: EDUC 101, 201, 220, English Proficiency Examination, PPST, and admission to Teacher Education. A study of the theory and teaching techniques appropriate for elementary school children. Attention is given to recent research on effective teaching; planning, implementing, and evaluating lessons; motivating and organizing for effective instruction; and techniques for meeting the needs of diverse school populations. Performance-based assessment is applied. NTE: Professional Knowledge should be taken with this course.

ELED 303 METHODS OF TEACHING LANGUAGE ARTS IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 3 Credits
Prerequisites: ELED 301, EDUC 220, and NTE (CS and GK). A study of the language arts curriculum (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and strategies for teaching the language arts. Examination of theories and philosophies related to literacy learning, as well as curriculum and classroom environments that allow children to emerge more fully into literacy. Practicum III is taken concurrently. NTE ELED should be taken with this course.

ELED 304 METHODS OF TEACHING READING IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 3 Credits
Prerequisites: ELED 301, EDUC 220, and NTE (CS and GK). A course that gives prospective teachers competencies and other attributes essential for providing effective reading instruction for children in elementary schools. Students broaden their knowledge and understanding of the process of reading and the importance of literacy in a modern, technologically oriented society. Students integrate their professional knowledge through actual experiences in the schools. Practicum III is taken concurrently. NTE: ELED should be taken with this course.

ELED 306 METHODS OF TEACHING SCIENCE IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 3 Credits
Prerequisites: ELED 301, EDUC 220, and NTE (CS and GK). Concepts and techniques of teaching general science in the elementary school. Emphasis is placed on planning activities for the direct observation of phenomena in the classroom. Practicum III is taken concurrently. NTE: ELED should be taken with this course.

ELED 310 METHODS OF TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 3 Credits
Prerequisites: ELED 301, EDUC 220, and NTE (CS and GK). A study of concepts underlying the several social studies and the techniques and materials useful for understanding this content. Practicum III is taken concurrently. NTE: ELED should be taken with this course.

ELED 314 TEACHING MATHEMATICS IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 3 Credits
Prerequisites: ELED 301, EDUC 220, and NTE (CS and GK). Content and methods of teaching mathematical concepts and arithmetical skills. Practicum III is taken concurrently. NTE: ELED should be taken with this course.

ELED 316 PRACTICUM III 1 Credit
Observation of model lessons in an elementary classroom, examination of curriculum materials, and teaching of selected lessons under the supervision of a master teacher. The practicum is completed on a Tuesday or Thursday for the full day. This practicum must be taken with methods courses. NTE (CS, GK, PK) required to apply for Student Teaching. Application is made for Student Teaching during this course. 

ELED 401 DIRECTED TEACHING AND SEMINAR/ELEMENTARY EDUCATION 12 Credits
Prerequisites: ELED 301, all Methods courses and NTE (CS, GK, PK) completed to apply. A semester course in which the student participates in all of the activities of the teacher in the classroom, in the school, and in the community. Beginning with a period of observation and orientation, the student receives assignments of increasing difficulty from the cooperating teacher until he/she is capable of assuming full responsibility for teaching. The semester is divided into an eight-week assignment in the intermediate and an eight-week assignment in the primary grades. The practical experience is accompanied by a regularly-scheduled seminar. The student teacher follows the entire schedule of the school at which the student is placed.

ELED 410 DIAGNOSTIC AND REMEDIAL READING 3 Credits
Prerequisite: A course in reading methods, EDUC 101, and NTE (CS, GK). A study of the important principles of diagnosis and remediation in reading, with appropriate emphasis on major causes of reading problems. Emphasis on formal and informal procedures for diagnosing and remediating reading problems.

SCED: SECONDARY EDUCATION COURSE DESCRIPTIONS

SCED 302 ANALYSIS OF TEACHING/SECONDARY 3 Credits
Prerequisites: English Proficiency Examination, EDUC 101, EDUC 201, NTE (CS and GK), and admission to Teacher Education. An overview of the teaching process, basic concepts; techniques of diagnostic and prescriptive teaching; classroom management, instruments for assessing teaching performance; micro-teaching, disruptive students. NTE: PK must be taken during this course.

SCED 304 METHODS OF TEACHING/SECONDARY 3 Credits
Prerequisites: EDUC 220, EDUC 302, and NTE (CS and GK). An integrated methods course of practices and processes related to teaching in the secondary school. The course has two eight-week segments. First eight weeks: General methods for all secondary students. Second eight weeks: Specific methods in the content area. Practicum III is taken concurrently. NTE: Specialty is taken with this course.

SCED 305 PRACTICUMIII 1 Credit
Prerequisites: EDUC 220, EDUC 302, and NTE (CS and GK). Observation of model lessons in an elementary classroom, examination of curriculum materials, and teaching of selected lessons under the supervision of a master teacher. The practicum is completed on a designated day each week and continues for the full day. This practicum must be taken with methods courses. PK is required to apply for Student Teaching. Application is made to Student Teaching.

SCED 401 DIRECTED TEACHING AND SEMINAR 12 Credits
Prerequisites: SCED 302, all Methods courses, and NTE: CS, GK, PK required to apply. A semester course in which the student participates in all of the activities of the teacher in the classroom, in the school, and in the community. Beginning with a period of observation and orientation, the student receives assignments of increasing difficulty from the cooperating teacher until he/she is capable of assuming full responsibility for teaching. The semester is divided into an assignment in the middle and an assignment in the senior grades. The practical experience is accompanied by a regularly scheduled seminar. The student teacher follows the entire schedule of the school at which the student is placed.

SCED 450 METHODS OF TEACHING READING/SECONDARY 3 Credits
Prerequisites: EDUC 220, SCED 302, and NTE (CS and GK). A course designed to give secondary teachers an understanding of various approaches to teaching reading in subject matter fields. Exploration of recent research in the area, "how-to" lessons, and an examination of reading philosophy and literature as applicable to the secondary student.

SPED: SPECIAL EDUCATION COURSE DESCRIPTIONS

SPED 401 DIRECTED TEACHING AND SEMINAR IN SPECIAL EDUCATION 6 Credits
Prerequisites: ECED 301, all Methods courses, and NTE (CS, GK, PK). An extensive experience developing and implementing the instructional plan for exceptional young students. This experience includes selecting appropriate materials, utilizing needed professionals working as a part of an instructional team. This experience is in a special class in a classroom with mainstreamed students. The practical experience is accompanied by a regularly scheduled seminar. The student teacher follows the schedule of the school at which placed.

SPED 403 ORIENTATION TO SPECIAL EDUCATION 3 Credits
Prerequisites: English Proficiency Examination, EDUC 101, and EDUC 201. An examination of the historical development, legislation, litigation, and current problems that have emerged relative to the education of exceptional children. The characteristics of children with disabilities and the principles of effective instruction are addressed as they apply to special education. Professional and parent organizations and local, state, and federal agencies dealing with exceptional children are also identified. Periodic visits to preschool sites are required. 

SPED 405 DIAGNOSIS, PRESCRIPTIVE TEACHING, AND CURRICULUM PLANNING FOR THE MILDLY AND MODERATELY DISABLED (Spring) 3 Credits 
A broad survey of testing (formal and informal) and alternative assessment in which materials and techniques are examined in terms of their relevance to planning curriculum and instructional interventions for exceptional children from culturally diverse backgrounds. Formative, summative, criterion-referenced, performance-based, and normative testing are examined. Students develop competencies in instructional planning for exceptional children based on individualized assessment.

SPED 406 OBSERVATION AND PARTICIPATION OF THE MILDLY AND MODERATELY DISABLED 3 Credits
A practicum designed to provide students with experience in working with and observing exceptional children in a special setting at a public school. This experience provides students with the opportunity to study the various types of exceptionalities and the educational relevance of planning the educational program to meet the individual needs of the mildly and moderately disabled.

SPED 407 THEORY AND RESEARCH IN SPECIAL EDUCATION 3 Credits
Prerequisites: SPED 403 and SPED 405. A study of alternative definitions, critical characteristics, theories, techniques, and programs for use with mildly and moderately disabled, emotionally disturbed, and learning disabled children. A review of research findings, as well as crosscultural studies in various exceptionalities. A study of reflexology, neuro-evolutional therapy, sensorimotor developmental stages and other theoretically based techniques.

SPED 409 MANAGEMENT AND PROGRAM PLANNING FOR SPECIAL EDUCATION 3 Credits
Prerequisites: SPED 403, SPED 405, and SPED 407. Emphasis on students' development of competence to plan and implement individual, classroom, and school-wide interventions designed to promote appropriate school behavior. Observational methods, behavior promotion, reduction, generalization strategies and interview techniques are reviewed. Collaboration and conferring are emphasized. Applied behavior analysis as well as other non-behavioral approaches will be explored. Discipline and other issues related to management are discussed. Students are required to develop an individual, classroom, and school-wide project(s) which demonstrate their ability to design, implement, and evaluate the effectiveness of their intervention(s). Record-keeping as a visible tool for monitoring student progress will also be employed.